Acronymns and Mnemonics


Documentation required in aircraft (91.9, 91.203)

A Airworthiness certificate
R US Registration
O Operating limitation
W Weight and balance


Required inspections (91.409, 91.413)

H Hired for passengers or flight instruction 100 hrs
E ELT 12 mos
A Annual 12 mos
T Transponder 24 mos
For IFR (91.411)
S Static pressure system 24 mos
A Altimeter 24 mos
M Mode C automatic pressure reporting system 24 mos

20/30 Rule

Fuel requirements (91.151, 91.167)

20 20 minutes, VFR day or night
30 30 minutes, IFR day or night

2/1 Flight Time

Rule of thumb for fuel consumption and flight time

R22 Beta II (10
gal/hr or 1 lb/min) or R44 Astro (15 gal/hr or 1.5 lbs/min)
2 Main fuel gage is a 2-hour gage
1 Aux fuel gage is a 1-hour gage


Required VFR Equipment (91.205b)

C Compass
A Airspeed indicator
M Manifold pressure
A Altimeter
F Fuel gage
O Oil temperature
O Oil pressure
T Tachometers (engine and rotor)
S Seatbelts


Required VFR Equipment (91.205b)

T Tachometer
O Oil pressure
M Magnetic compass
A Airspeed indicator
T Temperature gage for liquid cooled engines
O Oil temp
E Emergency equipment (if beyond power-off glide distance
over water, pyrotechnic signaling device and PFD)
A Anti-collision lights (AIRPLANES ONLY)
F Fuel gage
L Landing gear position indicator
A Altimeter
M Manifold pressure gage
E Emergency Locator Transmitter (AIRPLANES ONLY)
S Safety belts and shoulder harnesses


R22/R44 required equipment (POH)

G Governor
O Outside air temperature gage
A Alternator
L Low rotor RPM warning system (light and horn)
T Electric or hydraulic trim (R44 only)


R22/R44 VFR night lighting (POH)

N Navigation
A Anticollision
I Instrument
L Landing
GI Ground illumination
CI Celestial illumination


Required equipment, Night VFR (91.205)

F Fuses
L Landing light, if operated for hire
A Anti-collision lights
P Position lights (red on right is wrong)
S Source of electricity (battery, alternator, or


Required IFR equipment (91.205d)

G Generator/alternator
R Rate of turn/turn coordinator
A Sensitive altimeter
B Slip-skid indicator ball
C Clock with hours, minutes, and seconds
A Attitude indicator
R Radios (appropriate to navigation facilites used)
D Directional gyro
N Navigation equipment (other than GPS, appropriate to

Taken alive, In a fix, Goin’ to heaven

Emergency squawk codes

7500 Taken alive–hostage situation
7600 In a fix–lost radio communications
7700 Goin’ to heaven–emergency

AVE-F, MEA, Clearance Limit

Lost communications procedures (91.185)

If VFR Remain VFR and land as soon as practicable, otherwise…
Route (AVE F)
A Assigned Fly last assigned in ATC clearance, otherwise…
V Vectored If being vectored, direct to fix, route, or airway specified in vector clearance, otherwise…
E Expected Route as advised in Expected Further Clearance (EFC), otherwise…
F Filed Route as filed in flight plan
Altitude (MEA)
M Minimum Minimum IFR altitude, otherwise…
E Expected Expected altitude in EFC, otherwise…
A Assigned Assigned altitude in last clearance
Leave Clearance Limit
If CL is IAF Leave clearance limit at EFC time, if received; otherwise, as per flight plan ETA
If CL is not IAF Leave clearance limit at EFC time; otherwise, proceed to IAF and descend for approach at ETA


Position reporting (IFR)

I Identification
P Position
T Time
A Altitude
F Flight conditions (VFR or IFR, for FSS only)
E ETA over next reporting point
R Name of next reporting point
R Remarks


Malfunction reporting (91.187)

N N-number
E Affected equipment
D Degree affected
D Desired assistance


Required visual references for IFR landing (91.175)

A Approach lights
V Visual glide slope indicator
R Runway
R …markings
R …lights
R …end identifier lights
T Threshold
T …markings
T …lights
T …zone
T …zone markings
T …zone lights
Normal rate of descent and maneuver
Visibility prescribed for the approach

VAAAACUM Loss Compromises Final ETA

IFR required reports (91.183, 91.187)

V Vacating assgned altitude
A Altitude change, VFR-on-top
A Arrival at clearance limit (time and arrival)
A Arrive/leave holding fix (time and altitude)
A Any other safety of flight issue, incl hazardous weather
C Change of filed TAS, greater of +/- 5% or 10 knots
U Unable to climb/descend 500 ft/min
M Missed approach
Loss of any navigation, approach, or communication capability
(If not in radar contact)
C Compulsory reporting points or any fix used to define route
F FAF or OM inbound
E ETA change >3 minutes


Clearance items

C Cleared to…
R Route
A Altitude
F Frequency for departure
T Transponder code
V Void time

6 T’s

When crossing any fix or FAF

T Turn to new heading
T Time
T Twist (set OBS/radios)
T Throttle, adjust power as necessary
T Talk, communications as required
T Track, bracket or track new course


Pre-approach checks

T Tune GPS, NAV/COM frequencies, and OBS
I Identify correct NAV station
M Marker beacon test/audio on
E External annunciators (GPS/NAV)
S Set altimeter
A Align DG and compass
B Brief approach procedures
C Compute speeds and runway required

Very Good Airmen Do Procedures Right

VOR checks (91.171)

Within preceding 30 days
V VOR test facility +/-4 degrees
G Ground checkpoint +/-4 degrees
A Airborne checkpoint +/-6 degrees
D Dual VOR receivers, within 4 degrees of eachother
P Prominent ground point along centerline of a VOR airway, >20 NM from VOR, +/-6 degrees
R Record (PEDS) date, place,  bearing error, and signature


Compass acceleration error

AN Accelerate north
DS Decelerate south


Compass turning error

UN Undershoot north
OS Overshoot south

IFR Certified GPS in lieu of ADF and DME

AIM 1.1.19

DME DME at and above FL240
DME Flying a DME arc
Determining position over a DME fix
Determining position over an NDB/compass locator
Determining position over a fix defined by an NDB/CL bearning crossing a VOR/LOC course
Navigating TO/FROM an NDB/CL
Holding Holding over an NDB/CL

Weather within lateral limits of B, C, D, E to the SFC

Flight rules (91.155c-d, 91.157)

VFR 3 SM visibility and 1000′ ceiling
SVFR Helicopters, clear of clouds, day or night
IFR/SVFR Less than 3 SM visibility or 1000′ ceiling

Substitutes for OM and MM


OM CL, PAR, ASR, and (if authorized in IAP) DME, VOR, or NDB fix
MM Compass locator or PAR

5 thoughts on “Acronymns and Mnemonics”

  1. Where under 91.205b does it list in the acronymn CAMAFOOTS, manifold pressure? It does if you are a fixed wing pilot. But we are heli pilots and it doesn’t apply. It applies under the POH of Robinson’s list of MEL’s. For Rotorcraft under 91.205b it lists, seat belt and safety harness. So we can take everything else from CAMAFOOTS minus the M and add S, S and we have SOFATACOS.

    1. 91.205(b)(8): Manifold pressure gauge for each altitude engine.

      Can you explain why this would only apply to fixed wing aircraft? Shoulder harnesses should also be included, since this is required under ~(17), depending on the date of manufacture.

      Thanks for your comment!

  2. Altitude engine….only altitude engine that would come close would be a P51 Mustang with a two stage supercharger. It still doesn’t apply to helicopters. I have been taught CAMAFOOTS forever as well and I believe if I reading and researching correctly, it’s incorrect.

  3. 91.205-b-17
    Helicopter manufactured after 1992 a shoulder harness for each seat

    Yea technically speaking don’t need Manifold Pressure gauge for helicopter but good luck flying without it. Also if you read the FARS 91.9. You have to operate the helicopter within it’s operating limits per the POH. So how do you do that without a MAP Gauge

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