To introduce the effect of ATP inputs on heading and collective on altitude; coordinate ATP and collective inputs; introduce/reinforce a positive exchange of controls.
- Brief student on positive exchange of controls
- Allow the student to experiment with the effect ATP inputs have on aircraft heading
- Allow the student to experiment with the effect ATP inputs have on power requirements/collective inputs
- Perform 90-360° turns at a constant rate while maintaining a 5΄ skid height
Instructional aids and pre-requisites
- Lesson FC-1 is a pre-requisite
- Ground Lesson pre-requisite: None
- Pre-flight briefing: Positive 3-way exchange of controls
- Position the aircraft into the wind over an even surface with ample maneuvering room, and identify a vertical structure 50 ΄ to 75 ΄ from the aircraft that can be used as a reference
- Clear the area of traffic and obstructions
- Demonstrate 360 ° pedal turn
- In a 5-foot hover, transfer control of the ATPs to the student
- Direct student to apply ATP pressure in the desired direction of turn
- As the aircraft turns through the 90° position, decrease pedal
- As the aircraft turns through the 180° position, anticipate the need for opposite pedal pressure
- As the aircraft turns to the 360 ° position, stop turn with opposite pedal pressure
- After several 360 ° turns, transfer control of the ATPs and collective to the student
- Repeat turns, queuing student to make corrective collective inputs when altitude changes
- Post-flight briefing
- Correlate weathervaning tendency to the changing need for ATP
- Relate the power/collective requirement to ATP inputs
- Uneven rate of turn
- Practice in calm or light winds initially
- Not anticipating changing need for ATP or need for opposite ATP throughout turn
- Prompt student in advance of changing ATP requirements
- Climbing or descending during turns
- Prompt student to anticipate increase in power requirement with increase in left ATP
- Prompt student to anticipate decrease in power requirement with increase in right ATP
- Verbalizes positive exchange of controls
- Completes turn ±10 ° of starting heading
- Rate of turn constant
- Altitude ±2΄
- Since hovering is a complex skill, these lessons are designed to break the skill down into its component parts, but only after the student has developed a feel for the controls under more stable flight conditions. During previous in cruise flight, the student learns the general function of each control, and also begins to develop attitude references.
- Don’t rush students to hover–this is a skill that will develop in time.
- Use a 5′ hover altitude for students while learning to hover.
- Choose a vertical reference that it is a safe distance from the aircraft (50 ΄ to 75 ΄).
- Hangars, wind indicators, and flag poles are ideal examples, since they provide an unchanging reference for the aircraft’s attitude throughout the altitudes used for practicing hovering.
- None specified